KCSE 2022 History Past Paper 1 Questions And Answers

KCSE 2022 History Past Paper 1 Questions And Answers

KCSE Past Papers
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SECTION A (25 marks) 

Answer all questions in this section in the spaces provided 


1. Two groups of Highland Bantus in Kenya.

 i. The Agikuyu

 ii. The Ameru 

iii. The Akamba 

iv. The Aembu 

v. The Mbeere/ Ambeere 


2. The origin of the Southern Cushites who settled in Kenya during the pre-colonial period. 

 i. The Ethiopian highlands  


3. Functions of the Oloibon among the Maasai in the 19th Century. (2mks)


i. He was a religious leader/ offered prayers 

ii. He was a political leader/ unifying factor/ administered land 

iii. He blessed warriors before they went to war/ declared war 

iv. He performed rituals to ward off calamities 

v. He foretold the future/ prophet 

vi. He settled disputes vii. Advised council of elders


 4. Main purpose of the Bill of Rights in Kenya. 

 i. To recognize/ protect human rights and freedoms


 5. Two ways in which the use of Kiswahili promotes unity in Kenya. 


 i. It breaks communication barrier 

ii. It gives Kenyans an identity 

iii. It is an official language used in public offices/ meetings 

iv. It is used in disseminating information by electronic/ print media 


6. The first African to be appointed a minister in Kenya during the colonial period. 

 i. B.A. Ohanga 


7. One House of Parliament created by the Independence Constitution. 


i. The Senate/ Upper House 

ii. House of Representatives / Lower House   

8. Two rights of a child contained in the Constitution of Kenya. 


i. The right to free compulsory basic education 

ii. The right to parental care 

iii. The right to name/ nationality iv. The right to survive/ nutrition/ shelter/ health care 

v. The right to protection from abuse/ neglect/ discrimination/ harmful cultural practices/ violence/ inhuman treatment/ exploitation/ child labour vi. The right not to be detained 


9. Two methods which were used by the British to establish colonial rule in Kenya. 


 i. Military expeditions/ conquests/ use of force 

ii. Collaboration with some African rulers 

iii. Signing treaties with local leaders/ chiefs/ diplomacy 

iv. Establishing bases/ company rule v. Divide and rule 

vi. Offering gifts/ treachery vii. Use of the missionaries  


10. Two roles played by medicine men among the Kenyan communities during the precolonial period. 


i. Treating the sick/ diagnosed diseases 

ii. Acted as ritual experts 

iii. They were witch doctors 

iv. They were rain makers 

v. They were priests/ praying/ sacrificed/ officiating religious functions  


11. One feature of the education provided by the missionaries in during the colonial period.  


i. It was denominational/ religious 

ii. It was elementary/ basic 

iii. It was industrial/ technical 


12. Two similar demands of the Akamba Members Association and the Taita Hills Association. 


i. Reduction of taxes 

ii. An end to destocking policy 

iii. The return of African land 

iv. Abolition of forced labour 


13. One reason why African trade unions were not in existence in Kenya before 1914. 


i. The frequent movement of the Africans in search of paid labour 

ii. The colonial government was against the formation of African trade unions 

iii. African workers did not see the need of forming trade unions/ illiteracy  


14. Main contribution of Wangari Maathai to the development of Kenya. i. Environmental conservation/ tree planting  


15. Identify the political party that was formed by Oginga Odinga in 1966. 


i. The Kenya Peoples Union (KPU) 


16. Two categories of members of the National Assembly in Kenya. 


i. Elected members of National Assembly/ constituency representatives 

ii. County Woman Member of the National Assembly/ Women Representative 

iii. Nominated members of National Assembly 

iv. The Speaker 


17. Name the institution that makes laws at the county level in Kenya. 

i. The County Assembly 

SECTION B (45 marks) 

Answer any three questions from this section in the space provided 



a) Identify five sub groups of the Mijikenda in Kenya. 

i. Duruma 

ii. Kambe 

iii. Kauma 

iv. Digo 

v. Chonyi 

vi. Jibana 

vii. Ribe 

viii. Rabai 

ix. Giriama 


b) Explain five economic activities of the Mijikenda during the 19th Century. 


i. They hunted wild animals to supplement their food 

ii. They cultivated crops such as sorghum/ cassava/ millet/ sweet potatoes which could do well in their region 

iii. They practiced craft/ basketry/ pottery and used the items to carry/ store their produce iv. They kept animals/ cattle/ goats/ sheep which provided meat/ milk for food 

v. They practiced fishing in the Indian Ocean/ rivers in order to enrich their diet 

vi. They traded with their neighbours/ Arabs/ Akamba in order to obtain what they did not produce 

vii. They mined salt which was used for domestic purposes 

viii. They practiced iron working/ black smithing/ making weapons/ tools which they used for defense/ other purposes 

ix. They gathered wild fruits/ honey to supplement their food 



a) Give five levels of colonial administration in Kenya. 


i. Village 

ii. Sub-location 

iii. Division 

iv. District 

v. Province 

vi. Colony 


b) Discuss five problems faced by workers during the construction of the Uganda Railway. 


i. Rugged/ expansive terrain along the highlands/ mountains made the construction take long to complete 

ii. Delay in the delivery of materials/ equipment slowed down construction work 

iii. Harsh/ adverse climatic conditions across the coastal plains caused many deaths to workers 

iv. Scarcity of essential supplies/ food/ water/ medicine caused suffering among workers 

v. Attack by tropical diseases/ small pox/ malaria/ jiggers weakened the workers 

vi. Attack by wild animals of Tsavo created fear among the workers 

vii. Hostilities by some African Communities who were against alienation of their land for railway construction 

viii. Strained huge shortage of labourers 


a) Give five achievements of the early political associations in Kenya up to 1939. 


i. They aired African grievances to the colonial government 

ii. They created awareness/ awakened Africans on their rights 

iii. They publicized the plight of Africans under British imperialism to the international community 

iv. They promoted nationalism/ national unity among African communities 

v. They fought for the welfare of African workers/ better wages/ working conditions 

vi. They defended African cultures 


b) Describe five factors responsible for the Mau Mau uprising in Kenya. 


i. The role of ex-servicemen who demystified European superiority/ lack of compensation 

ii. Widespread unemployment among Africans/ closure of Karatina vegetable market 

iii. Failure of colonial government to institute political reforms/ constitutional reforms 

iv. Africans protested massive land alienation by white settlers 

v. Europeans undermined African cultural practices e.g. female genital mutilation, polygamy 

vi. Racial discrimination against Africans by European in education, health and other social facilities 

vii. Brutality and cruelty of colonial administration through colonial chiefs and police/ uplands Bacon factory massacre/ Olenguruone eviction 

viii. Protested poor living and working conditions in the white settlers farms 

ix. Economic exploitation through forced labour and forced taxation 



a) Outline five factors that enabled the Nandi to resist the British invasion for a long period. 


i. Their mixed economy ensured regular supply of food 

ii. The Orkoiyot was the symbol of unity 

iii. Familiar terrain/ ground favored Nandi fighters 

iv. The British were attacked by respiratory diseases 

v. Their knowledge/ skills of making arms/ availability of arms 

vi. The support/ reinforcement by the Kipsigis 

vii. Existence of a strong army/ military experience 

viii. The use of guerilla tactics of warfare 


b) Explain five results of the collaboration between the British and the Wanga during the colonial period. 


i. The British enlisted services of the Wanga agents to administer Western Kenya 

ii. The Wanga allowed Imperial British East African Company (IBEAC) to establish a base at Mumias which served as its headquarters 

iii. The Wanga lost their independence as colonial rule was established 

iv. Enmity between the Wanga and other Abaluhya sub-tribes as they felt the Wanga were betraying their course 

v. Mumia was declared the paramount chief of the Wanga allowing his influence to extend to Bunyala/ Gem/ Ugenya/ Alego 

vi. The Wanga warriors became agents of the British colonialism used to subdue the other resisting communities / mercenaries 

vii. The Wanga received material wealth for their collaboration through trade 

viii. It led to the expansion of the Wanga kingdom as it acquired more territories – Samia/ Busoga/ Bunyala 

ix. Acquisition of firearms/ other exotic commodities which raised the status of King Mumia 

x. It led to the introduction of Western education/ religion from the British 

SECTION C (30 marks) 

Answer any two questions from this section in the space provided 



a) Five elective positions in a general election in Kenya. 


i. President 

ii. Constituency Representative/ Member of National Assembly 

iii. Senator 

iv. Governor 

v. County Woman Representative 

vi. Member of County Assembly 


b) Limitations of parliamentary supremacy in Kenya. 


i. It may be side stepped when the president declares a state of emergency 

ii. Its legislative function is bound by international laws/ treaties/ conventions/ agreements/ ratification of international treaties/ laws 

iii. Its legislative authority/ oversight role may be undermined by a strong Cabinet 

iv. Legislation by county government may also undermine parliamentary supremacy 

v. Effectiveness of passing some legislation may be undermined by social cultural practices/ beliefs of the people 

vi. It cannot pass laws/ legislation which contravenes the Constitution of Kenya 


a) State three circumstances which may cause the office of the County Governor to become vacant in Kenya. 


i. If the governor dies 

ii. If the governor is impeached 

iii. If the governor resigns 

iv. If the governor is mentally incapacitated/ becomes insane 

v. If the County Government is dissolved by the president 

vi. If he/she is convicted of an offence which attracts an imprisonment of at least 12 months 

vii. Due to gross violation of the constitution 

viii. If he/ she ceases to be eligible to be elected a County Governor/ Bankrupt 


b) Six functions of the President of the Republic of Kenya. 


i. He/she presides over public/ national days/ labour day/ Madaraka Day/ Jamhuri Day: where the country’s achievements are celebrated 

ii. He/she chairs cabinet meetings where government policies are formulated/ directs and coordinates he functions of ministers 

iii. He/she addresses opening of each newly elected parliament where he/she outlines the government agenda 

iv. He/ she participates in law making/ legislation by signing/ assenting bills into law 

v. He/she is the head of state/ government hence represents the country at local/ international level 

vi. He/she nominates/ appoints with approval of parliament, senior public officers who assist in governing the country such as Cabinet secretaries/ Attorney General/ ambassadors 

vii. He/ she confers honors/ medals to persons who have given distinguishes service to the nation 

viii. He/ she exercises the Power of Mercy through pardoning persons convicted of various minor offences 

ix. He/ she defends the constitution by ensuring adherence to the rule of law 

x. He/ she, once a year gives report/ address to the nation on the progress/ state of the nation on achievements in realization of national values 

xi. He/she ensures fulfillment of international obligations/ treaties by relevant government departments 

xii. He/she receives foreign diplomats accredited to the country

xiii. He/she can declare a state of emergency and with the approval of parliament can declare war  


 a) Identify three funds into which the Government of Kenya deposits its revenue. 


i. Consolidated fund 

ii. Revenue fund 

iii. Contingencies fund 

iv. Equalization fund 


b) Discuss six taxes levied by the National Government of Kenya. 


i. Excise duty which is charged on goods that are locally produced/ sold within the country 

ii. Value added tax (VAT) which is paid to specific goods such as petroleum products/ sugar/ electronic equipment 

iii. Investment revenue which is generated by government bodies/ parastatals like KPLC/ Postal Corporation/ Kenya Railway 

iv. Trading licenses paid by traders wishing to operate businesses/ those operating businesses 

v. Land rates paid by citizens/ companies as stamp duty/ rent/ standing premium on plots/ land adjudication/ court case fees 

vi. Loan interest receipts from government bodies/ agencies that pay interest on money advanced to them by the exchequer 

vii. Court fines which are charged on persons found guilty by courts of law 

viii. Tourism fees which are paid by local/ foreign tourists as entrance fees into game reserves/ national parks/ other tourist attraction sites 

ix. Domestic borrowing where the government raises revenue through sale of treasury bills/ bonds 

x. House rates/ rent paid for the use/ hire of government buildings/ facilities 

xi. Customs duty which is tax levied on goods imported into the country/ export 

xii. Traffic revenue tax levied on traffic related services like driving licenses/ airport tax/ road maintenance levy

Mathematics Form 2 Notes
1. (a) State five differences in the annunciation of the birth of John the Baptist and Jesus Christ. (b)Describe the activities that took place on the night when Jesus Christ was born. (Luke 2:6-20) (7 marks) (c) Identify eight ways in which Christians in Kenya demonstrate their joy for the birth of (8 marks)
Published on:14/06/2023
1. (a)State seven differences found in the two accounts of creation in Genesis 1 and 2. (7 marks) (b) Outline six attributes of God from the stories of creation in Genesis 1 and 2. (6 marks) (c) Give seven ways in which Christians continue with God's work of creation today. (7 marks)
Published on:13/06/2023